At higher temperatures, CO 2 has poor solubility in water, which means there is less CO 2 available for the photosynthetic reactions. The enrichment of bone 13 C also implies that excreted material is depleted in 13 C relative to the diet. This increase in 14 C concentration almost exactly cancels out the decrease caused by the upwelling of water containing old, and hence 14 C depleted, carbon from the deep ocean, so that direct measurements of 14 C radiation are similar to measurements for the rest of the biosphere. Correcting for isotopic fractionation, as is done for all radiocarbon dates to allow comparison between results from different parts of the biosphere, gives an apparent age of about years for ocean surface water. The deepest parts of the ocean mix very slowly with the surface waters, and the mixing is uneven. The main mechanism that brings deep water to the surface is upwelling, which is more common in regions closer to the equator. Upwelling is also influenced by factors such as the topography of the local ocean bottom and coastlines, the climate, and wind patterns. Overall, the mixing of deep and surface waters takes far longer than the mixing of atmospheric CO 2 with the surface waters, and as a result water from some deep ocean areas has an apparent radiocarbon age of several thousand years. Upwelling mixes this “old” water with the surface water, giving the surface water an apparent age of about several hundred years after correcting for fractionation. This is probably because the greater surface area of ocean in the southern hemisphere means that there is more carbon exchanged between the ocean and the atmosphere than in the north.
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Let’s say an atom is missing a neutron or has an extra neutron. That type of atom is called an isotope. An atom is still the same element if it is missing an electron. The same goes for isotopes. They are still the same element. They are just a little different from every other atom of the same element. For example, there are a lot of carbon C atoms in the Universe. The normal ones are carbon Those atoms have 6 neutrons. There are a few straggler atoms that don’t have 6.
Those odd ones may have 7 or even 8 neutrons.
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Volume , Issues 3—4 , 5 September , Pages Controls on water drop volume at speleothem drip sites: Since calcite precipitation rates depend on the water discharge at the drip site, the drip rate and mass of water drops detaching from stalactites are fundamental controls on speleothem growth and we have investigated factors that control the volume of water drops in this environment. The classical investigations on the volume of falling water drops are reviewed but there have been no measurements of the volume of drops detaching from curved surfaces equivalent to tips of stalactites.
The experimental method corroborates classical measurements of drop mass detaching from tubes and, for massive stalactites, we derive a simple empirical relationship between drop mass and radius of curvature of a spherical surface, based on , drop counts from artificial stalactites with 19 different radii ranging from 3.
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Thousands of genera Phanerozoic biodiversity as shown by the fossil record Mass extinctions are thought to result when a long-term stress is compounded by a short term shock. In general, large extinctions may result when a biosphere under long-term stress undergoes a short-term shock. High diversity leads to a persistent increase in extinction rate; low diversity to a persistent increase in origination rate. These presumably ecologically controlled relationships likely amplify smaller perturbations asteroid impacts, etc.
It may be necessary to consider combinations of causes. For example, the marine aspect of the end-Cretaceous extinction appears to have been caused by several processes which partially overlapped in time and may have had different levels of significance in different parts of the world. Most widely supported explanations[ edit ] Macleod  summarized the relationship between mass extinctions and events which are most often cited as causes of mass extinctions, using data from Courtillot et al.
Flood basalt events[ edit ] The formation of large igneous provinces by flood basalt events could have: Flood basalt events occur as pulses of activity punctuated by dormant periods. As a result, they are likely to cause the climate to oscillate between cooling and warming, but with an overall trend towards warming as the carbon dioxide they emit can stay in the atmosphere for hundreds of years.
It is speculated that massive volcanism caused or contributed to the End-Permian , End-Triassic and End-Cretaceous extinctions.